This section describes the Proof-of-Rank consensus and its implementation.
Trusted Game Application Ecology
Based on Proof of Rank PoR Consensus Protocol
- Providing immediate transaction finality
- Scalability to billions of users
- Trusted P2P network
- Public encrypted ledger contract
- Providing initiative funds for on-chain games
- Fully compatible with Ethereum dApps
Blockchain technology has revolutionized the way we think about data and transactions, offering a secure and decentralized platform for recording and verifying transactions. However, the current state of blockchain technology is not without its limitations, especially when it comes to consensus mechanisms. One popular consensus mechanism is proof of work (PoW), but it is highly energy-intensive and can lead to centralization. To overcome these limitations, researchers and developers have come up with alternative consensus mechanisms, such as proof of stake (PoS), proof of authority (PoA), and proof of rank (PoR).
Proof of rank (PoR) is a novel consensus mechanism that aims to address the limitations of existing consensus mechanisms. PoR is a reputation-based consensus mechanism that uses a weighted voting system to achieve consensus. The weight of a vote is determined by the reputation of the voter, which is based on their past actions and contributions to the network.
The concept of PoR is based on the idea that participants in the network who have contributed more to the network should have a greater say in the decision-making process. This approach incentivizes participants to contribute to the network in a positive way, which can lead to a more efficient and secure network.
The implementation of PoR in a blockchain network involves several steps. First, the reputation of each participant is calculated based on their past actions, such as the number of transactions they have processed, the number of blocks they have validated, and the number of nodes they have connected to. This reputation score is then used to calculate the weight of their vote in the consensus
In blockchain platforms, consensus mechanisms can be divided into permissionless (Bitcoin, Ethereum) and permissioned (Apla, Ethereum Private). In a permissioned blockchain, all nodes are pre-authenticated. This advantage allows using consensus types that provide high transaction rate in addition to other benefits. One of these consensus types is Siriusnet consensus. Siriusnet is a new consensus algorithms family that provides high performance and fault tolerance. In Siriusnet, rights to generate new blocks are awarded to nodes that have proven their authority to do so. To gain this authority and a right to generate new blocks, a node must pass a preliminary authentication.
Compared to other consensus types that require a proof of spent computational resources (Proof-of-Work) or an existing “share” (Proof-of-Stake), PoR consensus has several notable advantages:
High-performance hardware is not required. Compared to PoW consensus, PoR consensus does not require nodes to spend computational resources for solving complex mathematical tasks. The interval of time at which new blocks are generated is predictable. For PoW and PoS consensuses, this time varies. High transaction rate. Blocks are generated in a sequence at appointed time interval by authorized network nodes. This increases the speed at which transactions are validated. Tolerance to compromised and malicious nodes, as long as 51% of nodes are not compromised. Apla implements a ban mechanism for nodes and means of revoking block generation rights.
An attacker sends a large number of transactions and blocks to a targeted network node in an attempt to disrupt its operation and make it unavailable. The PoR mechanism makes it possible to defend against this attack:
- Because network nodes are pre-authenticated, block generation rights can be granted only to nodes that can withstand DoS attacks.
- If a node is unavailable for a certain period, it can be excluded from the list of validating nodes.
In PoR consensus, the 51% attack requires an attacker to obtain control over 51% of network nodes. This is different from the 51% attack for the Proof-of-Work consensus types where an attacker needs to obtain 51% of network computational power. Obtaining control of the nodes in a permissioned blockchain network is much harder than obtaining computational power.
For example, in a PoW consensus-type network, an attacker can increase the computation power (performance) of the controlled network segment thus increasing the controlled percentage. This makes no sense for PoR consensus because the computational power of the node has no effect on the blockchain network decisions.
Only selected nodes called validating nodes can generate new blocks. These nodes maintain the blockchain network and the distributed ledger.
The list of validating nodes is kept in the blockchain registry. The order of nodes in this list determines the sequence in which nodes generate new blocks.
Why are we building this?
We are developing our own blockchain to allow more online games such as e-sports / battle/ RPG / music to act as the Payment Gateway, through our close to 0 handling fee and the transparency of the blockchain, Players and merchants can enjoy paying and receiving money fairly. Controlling ownership and distribution are difficult on the internet. Web3 applications empower company creators to better monetize their Games and Profit.